The Cause of Salmonella
Salmonella is a bacteria responsible for causing foodborne illness throughout the world. They can be passed from the feces of people or animals to other people or other animals. It lives in the intestinal tracts of humans and other animals. Salmonella is usually present in contaminated animal meat, such as meat, poultry, eggs, and milk. In foods, most strains of Salmonella don’t usually affect the taste, smell, or appearance of the food.
Human to human salmonella spread usually occurs when food handlers don’t wash their hands while preparing other’s food. Salmonella symptoms usually include fever, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting. These symptoms usually appear about 12-72 hours after infection. The illness itself lasts about 4-7 days, with most people not needing treatment to recover.
Nitric Oxide interferes with the Metabolism of Pathogen
Nitric oxide plays a key role in the body’s immune system, preventing disease causing organisms from wrecking havoc. Fang’s research has shown that nitric oxide puts restrictions on the metabolic pathways of pathogens. It can suppress many pathogens due to it reacting with a variety of metabolic targets.
Nitric oxide puts Salmonella into what is called nitrosative stress. Under this state, Salmonella is unable to produce two amino acids, methionine and lysine, that are essential for growth. Nitric oxide interferes with the citric acid cycle, an important stage in cellular respiration where fuel is broken down and released as energy for cell division and growth. Fang’s study also shows that nitric oxide blocks certain regulatory genes that would otherwise allow Salmonella another chemical route to deal with the nitrosative stress. Fang also notes that nitric oxide does not harm the bacteria’s host.
Concluding Statements by Author
The author of the study stated that this shows how important it is to have an understanding of the host-pathogen interaction and detailed knowledge of the pathogens metabolism. He also notes that scientists may be able to develop new broad-spectrum antimicrobials, ones that promote the body’s own natural defenses against infection.